2017-11-06

【立場新聞】曾焯文(Chapman Chen, Ph.D.):美國最高法院裁定:愛國無得強迫! (2732)


Chapman Chen: US Supreme Court: Patriotism cannot be Compelled! (Pls scroll down for English Summary)

全國人大常委會今日(四日),通過將《國歌法》納入《基本法》附件三,港府將開展本地立法工作,在本港實施《國歌法》。葉國謙今早接受港台訪問表示,在公共場合播國歌時,市民必須站立,亦絕不能作出背對、不尊重的動作表達不滿。一九四三年,美國最高法院裁定懲罰不向國旗表忠者違憲;不能強迫公民以語言或行動,承認某些信念;愛國無得強迫。

最近特朗普幾次譴責美式足球聯盟球員聞國歌不站立,反而下跪,抗議警察濫用暴力。又本年九月,田納西高中足球教練命其隊員聞國歌而肅立; 又有路易士安拿洲中學校長威脅校隊運動員如聞國歌不站立,就會被革走。不少美國人認為此舉違憲。無論向國旗敬禮或聞國歌表忠,原則都一樣,不可剝奪平民的言論信仰自由,愛國無得強迫。

一九四三年,美國西維珍尼亞洲有班耶和華見證人學生以教義理由拒絕向國旗敬禮,校方威脅要踢其出校,最高法院裁定懲罰不向國旗表忠者違憲。

判詞如下: 「如果憲法有任何不變的重點,那就是無任何政府官員,無論級別,對關於任何意見的事,包括政治宗教,民族大義等等,都無權規定何謂正宗,更不能強迫公民以語言或行動,承認信仰。如有任何例外情況,至今仍未見。」

法庭並無忽畧表達效忠激起深層情感,尤其在戰時(即該案判時),但法官認為在這種情況,學生的言論自由人權更形重要!

「與眾不同的自由不限於小事。若只限於小事,那只是自由的影子。試金石是即使觸及當局秩序核心,仍有權與別不同。」

法庭亦解釋真正的愛國人士歡迎示威異見,即使涉及國旗。法庭認為真正愛國者知道美國強大,本身魅力經足以吸引國民,毋須高壓強迫愛國。「相信如果愛國儀式可自願自覺參加,否則愛國情懷就不會興盛,等於低估蔑視國家機構對於思想自由人士的吸引人。」

English Summary

The National People's Congress Standing Committee today passed the motion to incorporate the mainland's anthem legislation into Annex III of Hong Kong's Basic Law. The HK government is going to enact the national anthem law through local legislation. Anyone who insults the national anthem on the mainland or uses it inappropriately faces 15 days in detention, with authorities considering increasing that punishment to three years in prison. Executive Councillor Ip Kwok-him said that when the China anthem is broadcast in public, citizens are expected to stand up. In 1943, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that punishing those who failed to pledge allegiance to the National flag violates the freedom of speech and is thus unconstitutional, that citizens are not to be forced to confess any faith by word or by action; patriotism should be voluntary.


 



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